Proper Fuel for Cummins Engines
considered experimental and is not covered by warranty. Engine damage, service issues, or
performance problems that occur due to the use of these products are not considered a defect
in material or workmanship as supplied by Cummins Inc. and can not be compensated under
the Cummins® warranty.
This section gives information on the use of fuel additives in Cummins® engines, including
Cummins Inc. neither approves nor disapproves of the use of any fuel additive, fuel
extender, fuel system modification, or the use of any device not manufactured or sold
by Cummins Inc. or its subsidiaries. Engine damage, service issues, or performance
problems that occur due to the use of these products are not considered a defect in material
or workmanship as supplied by Cummins Inc. and can not be compensated under the
Cummins Inc. engines are designed, developed, rated, and built to operate on commercially
available diesel fuel as listed in the Required Diesel Fuel Specifications; therefore, it is not our
policy to recommend fuel additives.
In certain situations, when available fuels are of poor quality or problems exist which are
peculiar to certain operations, additives can be used. However, Cummins Inc. recommends
consultation with the fuel supplier or the Cummins® Service Engineering Department prior to
the use of fuel additives.
Among the situations where additives can prove useful are the following: A cetane improver additive can be used with low cetane fuels.
A pour point depressant or flow improver additive can help with high pour point fuels.
A wax crystal modifier can help with fuels with high cold filter plugging points (CFPP).
An anti-icer can help prevent ice formation in wet fuel during cold weather.
An anti-oxidant or storage stability additive can help with fuel system deposits and poor
A lubricity enhancer can be used to increase the lubricity of fuels so that they meet the
requirements given in Table 1.
A biocide or fungicide can help when fuels are prone to contamination with bacteria or fungus.
Although other additives can provide some performance benefits, Cummins Filtration™
Microbicide (quart - CC2661 and gallon - CC2663) are the only products approved by
Cummins Inc. to treat fuels with biological contamination problems.
Cummins® Filtration Turbo Diesel All Season Fuel Additive (pint - CC2588) can be used with
low cetane fuels to boost cetane values. Although other additives are available that will boost
the cetane number, Cummins® Filtration All Season Fuel Additive is the only diesel fuel
additive approved by Cummins Inc. for cetane number improvement.
Cummins Filtration™ Asphaltene Conditioner Base (pint - CC2598, quart - CC2597, 5 gallons
- CC2549, and 55 gallons - CC2550) and Asphaltene Conditioner Concentrate (2.5 gallons -
CC2596, Bulk - CC2559) or Cummins Filtration™ Turbocharger Diesel All Season Fuel
Additive (pint - CC2588), can be used to clean carbon deposits from injectors and improve
lubricity in fuels that fall below the recommended lubricity specification in Table 1. Although
other additives can provide some performance benefits, Cummins Filtration™ Asphaltene
Conditioner, and Turbo Diesel All Season Fuel Additive are the only diesel fuel additives
approved by Cummins Inc. for use with fuels that do not meet the lubricity specification in
Cummins Filtration™n Winter Conditioner Base (pint - CC2591, quart - CC2592, 5 gallons -
CC2593, 55 gallons - CC2594, and Bulk - CC2590), Winter Conditioner Concentrate (5
gallons - CC2552, 55 gallons - CC2553, and Bulk - CC2554), and Turbocharger Diesel All
Season Fuel additive (pint - CC2588) can be used to improve the pour point and cold filter
plugging point of diesel fuels in addition to preventing ice formation in wet fuels during cold
storage. Although other additives are available that can provide some winter performance
benefits, Cummins Filtration™ Winter Conditioner and Turbo Diesel All Season Fuel Additive
are the only diesel fuel additives approved by Cummins Inc. for winter performance
Cummins Filtration™ Platinum Plus DFX Fuel Borne Catalyst can be used to enhance fuel
economy and improve the performance of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and Catalyzed Wire Mesh
Filters. Additionally, Platinum Plus DFX lowers the temperature at which soot captured in
emission control systems will oxidize. Platinum Plus DFX is available in various package sizes
(gallons - CC2767, 5 gallons - CC2766, and 55 gallons - CC2771). Cummins Filtration™
Platinum Plus DFX-DPF Fuel Borne Catalyst (gallons - CC2773, and 5 gallons - CC2772) can
be used with passive regenerated, high efficiency wall flow Diesel Particulate Filter systems. It
is specially formulated to enhance fuel economy, reduce Diesel Particulate Filter regeneration
temperatures, and further reduce particulate matter. Although other additives are available
that can provide some performance benefits, Cummins Filtration™ Platinum Plus DFX and
Platinum Plus DFX-DPF Fuel Borne Catalyst are the only diesel fuel additives approved by
Cummins Inc. for use in reducing regeneration temperatures and/or reducing particulate
Cummins Filtration™ offers lubricity enhancing fuel filters that can improve the lubricity of fuels
that fall below the recommended lubricity specification given in Table 1. The following filters are required by Cummins Inc. when the corresponding engine is operated using low lubricity
fuels such as Jet A or JP8.
Filter Fuel System Compatibility Engine Compatibility
FS20000 Rotary Fuel Systems B Series - Tier II Industrial
FS20022 Common Rail B Series - Tier III Industrial and Marine
FS20023 Common Rail C and L Series - Tier III Industrial
If deposits are found in critical components of the fuel system, and an engine meets three or
more of the following conditions, a fuel detergent additive is required to improve the
dispersancy of the fuel.
The engine is used in a hybrid power train.
The average vehicle speed is 11 km/hr [7 mi/hr] or less.
The engine exhaust is equipped with a diesel particulate filter.
The fuel used is 50 percent, or more, diesel number 1 (D1).
Premium diesel fuels can possibly contain several additives that can accomplish the same as
buying additives and adding them to lower quality diesel fuel.
Cummins Inc. recommends the use of a premium diesel fuel during winter (ambient conditions
at -7°C [20°F] or below) operating conditions.
Over use of fuel additives can cause adverse effects such as fuel filter plugging and reduced
Great care must be exercised in the choice and use of additives. Some fuel additives can be
harmful to the engine. Fuel additives containing ash forming materials will cause combustion
chamber deposits. Most legitimate fuel additives perform only one function. Multifunctional fuel
additives are mixtures of several additives. All fuel additives perform differently in different
fuels; therefore, the additive used must be one to which the fuel will respond. There are no
known additives that increase the power or improve the efficiency of a properly maintained
NOTE: Cummins Inc. accepts no liability for engine damage resulting from the use of fuel
additives which are not specifically approved. Consult your fuel supplier for guidance on
Fuel Characteristics - Water-emulsified diesel fuel is an alternative fuel that is made by
blending water and other additives (e.g. detergents) into diesel fuel.
Emissions - Water-emulsified diesel fuels have been verified by EPA and some state agencies
as an emissions reduction technology.
Cummins Inc. does not certify engines with water-emulsified fuels. Cummins Inc. does not
warranty any emissions improvements with the use of water-emulsified fuels.
Performance Issues - Water emulsified fuels have lower energy content than Number 2 diesel
fuel. Customers must expect at least a 15 percent power reduction and a 15 percent fuel
consumption increase when water-emulsified fuels are used. Because of the lower energy content in water-emulsified diesel fuels, engines running on water-emulsified diesel fuels can
require idle governor adjustments to prevent engine stalling.
Durability Issues - Many fuel system components in Cummins® engines are made of materials
that are susceptible to corrosion from water in fuel. Prolonged exposure to water in fuel can
result in fuel system component failures from corrosion.
Vehicle System Issues - Some water-emulsified diesel fuel suppliers recommend the removal
of the fuel water separator from the vehicle's fuel system. Removal of the fuel-water separator
violates Cummins Inc. engine installation requirements.
Since water is a significant component of water-emulsified diesel fuels, conductivity sensors
that detect water in fuel will not function properly with water-emulsified diesel fuels.
Some water-emulsified diesel fuels use a surfactant in the emulsifier. Surfactants can strip the
fuel tank and fuel lines of deposits, resulting in fuel filter plugging. Fuel filters must be
monitored closely during the initial use of water-emulsified diesel fuels.
Water-emulsified diesel fuels can not remain static for more than a month in storage or in
vehicle fuel tanks. Most water-emulsified diesel fuel storage facilities are required to have
circulation pumps for daily or weekly agitation. Engines operating on water-emulsified diesel
fuel must be operating for at least 15 minutes every 30 days to avoid fuel-water separation in
the vehicle fuel tank and in the engine fuel system.
Cummins Inc. Engine Warranty - Cummins Inc. engine warranty covers failures that are a
result of defects in material or factory workmanship. Engine damage, service issues, and/or
performance issues determined by Cummins Inc. to be caused by the use of water-emulsified
diesel fuel are not considered to be defects in material or workmanship and are not covered
under Cummins Inc. engine warranty.
Some water-emulsified fuel suppliers provide a comprehensive warranty for fuel system
failures caused by the use of water-emulsified diesel fuel. Customers are encouraged to
contact the water-emulsified diesel fuel supplier to determine the warranty provisions.
Cummins Inc. certifies its engines using the prescribed EPA and European Certification Fuels.
Cummins Inc. does not certify engines on any other fuel. It is the user's responsibility to use
the correct fuel as recommended by the manufacturer and allowed by EPA or other local
regulatory agencies. In the United States, EPA allows only registered fuels and fuel additives
to be entered into commerce. EPA has additional alternative fuel information at:
Biofuels - Fuels produced from renewable resources.
Biodiesel - A fuel comprised of methyl or ethyl ester-based oxygenates of long chain fatty
acids derived from the transesterification of vegetable oils, animal fats, and cooking oils.
These fuels are commonly known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) or Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE). Biodiesel properties are similar to those of diesel fuel, as opposed to gasoline
or gaseous fuels, and thus are capable of being used in compression ignition engines.
B100 - A fuel containing 100 percent biodiesel.
Petrodiesel - Diesel fuel produced purely from petroleum. Petrodiesel can also be referred to
as distillate diesel.
Biodiesel Blend - A fuel comprised of a mixture of petrodiesel and B100 biodiesel. A biodiesel
blend is typically designated by the percentage of biodiesel in the blend. For example: B5 is a
fuel containing 95 percent petrodiesel and 5 percent B100.
Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) diesel - Biodiesel derived from rapeseed oil. RME diesel is the
most common biodiesel used in Europe.
Soy Methyl Ester (SME or SOME) diesel - Biodiesel derived from soybean oil. SME diesel is
the most common biodiesel used in the United States.
BQ-9000 - The National Biodiesel Accreditation Program, which is called BQ-9000, is a
cooperative and voluntary program for the accreditation of producers and marketers of
biodiesel fuel. The program is a unique combination of the ASTM standard for biodiesel,
ASTM D6751, and a quality systems program that includes storage, sampling, testing,
blending, shipping, distribution, and fuel management practices.
With increased interest in emissions and reducing the use of petroleum distillate based fuels,
many governments and regulating bodies encourage the use of biofuels, such as biodiesel.
Cummins Inc. test data on the operating effects of biodiesel fuels indicates that typically
smoke, power, and fuel economy are all reduced. There are specifications for biodiesel issued
in Europe under EN14214 and in North America under ASTM D6751. These specifications
define only the biodiesel (B100) used as the blend component with diesel fuel. They are not
applicable to fuel blends purchased by the end user. Despite the existence of these standards,
the general quality of available biodiesel remains inconsistent.
To successfully use biodiesel, it is imperative that the fuel be of high quality and meet or
exceed the specifications outlined in this bulletin or engine damage will occur.
It is the responsibility of the user to verify/obtain the proper local, regional, or national
exemptions required for the use of biodiesel in any emissions regulated Cummins® engine.
Warranty and the Use of Biodiesel Fuel in Cummins® Engines
Cummins Inc. engine warranty covers failures that are a result of defects in material or factory
workmanship. Engine damage, service issues, and/or performance issues determined by
Cummins Inc. to be caused by the use of biodiesel fuel not meeting the specifications outlined
in this Service Bulletin are not considered to be defects in material or workmanship and are
not covered under Cummins Inc. engine warranty.
Requirements for Using Biodiesel Fuel in Cummins® Engines
Cummins Inc. provides the specifications found in Table 1 for diesel fuel and biodiesel blends
up to B5. For biodiesel blends above B5 and up to B20, Cummins Inc. provides the
specifications found in Table 4. The specifications in Table 4 have been developed by the
Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA), and are not an approved national or commercial
fuel standard. All biodiesel fuel blends are to be comprised of petrodiesel meeting ASTM
D975, and B100 meeting either ASTM D6751 or EN14214. Biodiesel fuel can be blended with an acceptable diesel fuel up to 5 percent volumeconcentration (B5) for all Cummins® engines.
Biodiesel fuel can be blended with an acceptable diesel fuel up to a 20 percent volume
concentration (B20) for the following Cummins® engines:
ISB CM850, ISB CM2150*, ISBe Euro 3, QSB4.5 Tier 3, and QSB6.7 Tier 3.
ISC/ISL CM850, ISC/ISL CM2150*, ISCe/ISLe Euro 3, and QSC/QSL Tier 3.
ISM CM870 and CM570, ISM CM875, ISM CM876, QSM11 Tier 3, QSM11 Marine, and
ISX CM870, ISX CM871, QSX15 Tier 3, and QSX15 G-Drive.
*For ISB CM2150 and ISC/ISL CM2150 products, Cummins Inc. requires fuel dilution
monitoring. See below for details.
For Cummins® engines in Chrysler Dodge Ram™ trucks, biodiesel fuel can be blended with
an acceptable diesel fuel up to a 20 percent volume concentration (B20) for municipal,
government, and commercial fleets only. This applies to selected model year vehicles. Please
consult Chrysler for specific requirements and approved vehicle models.
Customers choosing to run biodiesel blends above B5 and up to B20 must adhere to the
following requirements from Cummins Inc.
NOTE: For North American markets, Cummins Inc. requires that the biodiesel fuel blend be
purchased from a BQ-9000 Certified Marketer. The B100 biodiesel fuel used in the blend must
be sourced from a BQ-9000 Accredited Producer. Certified Marketers and Producers can be
found at the following website: http://www.bq-9000.org. For areas outside of North America,
consult your local Cummins Inc. representative for applicable fuel quality standards.
Fuel dilution of lubricating oil has been observed with the operation of biodiesel under certain
operating conditions. Fuel dilution monitoring can be accomplished by performing oil sampling.
Fuel levels in lubricating oil must not exceed 5 percent. Additional information on oil
contamination and oil sampling can be found in Cummins® Engine Oil Recommendations,
For ISB CM2150 and ISC/ISL CM2150 products, end users are required to use oil sampling
during the first 6 months of operation with biodiesel to monitor engine oil condition and fuel
dilution of lubricating oil in order to determine if the oil change interval needs to be modified.
Consult a Cummins® Authorized Repair Location for guidance in oil sampling.
Fuel Water Separation
Biodiesel has a natural affinity to water, and water accelerates microbial growth. Storage tanks
must be equipped with a fuel water separator to make sure that water is stripped out before
entering the vehicle tank. Make sure that the vehicle and storage tanks are kept full to reduce
the potential for condensation accumulating in the fuel tank.
Due to the solvent nature of biodiesel, and the potential for “cleaning” of the vehicle fuel tank
and lines, new fuel filters must be installed when switching to biodiesel on used engines. Fuel
filters will need to be replaced at half the standard interval for the next two fuel filter changes. Cummins Inc. requires the use of a StrataPore™ fuel filter media, and strongly recommends
using Cummins Filtration™ filters equipped with StrataPore™ media. This filter media
removes water more efficiently than standard cellulosic filter media, which will not provide
adequate fuel water separation capabilities. However, even StrataPore™ fuel filter media is
not as effective in removing water from biodiesel as it is in removing water from petrodiesel.
Therefore, preventing water from entering the fuel supply (vehicle or storage) remains very
If Stratapore™ filter media is not available, a substitute synthetic filter media may be used, but
it must provide 95 percent emulsified fuel water separation efficiency per SAE J1488. This test
method must be run using B20 biodiesel, having an interfacial surface tension of 22 dyne/cm
+ or - 2 dyne/cm. The filter must meet this specification when run at the rated flow of the
engine platform's fuel system. Fuel filter gaskets must also be compatible with B20 biodiesel
blends, with performance equal to or greater than what is outlined in the Cummins Filtration™
Engineering Standard FES1544 - Seals, Static, Rubber (Supplier Requirements, Fuel
Cummins Filtration's™ Fuel Pro®, Diesel Pro®, Industrial Pro®, and Sea Pro® products can
be used to provide remote mounted additional fuel filtration efficiency, with integrated fuel preheaters. Consult a local Cummins® Authorized Repair Location for guidance in fuel filter
selection and installation.
Biodiesel Fuel Storage
Use biodiesel fuel within six months of its manufacture. Biodiesel has poor oxidation stability,
which can result in long term storage problems. For this reason, Cummins Inc. does not
recommend using biodiesel for low use applications, such as standby power or seasonal
applications. Consult your fuel supplier for oxidation stability additives.
The poor oxidation stability qualities of biodiesel can accelerate fuel oxidation in the fuel
system, especially at increased ambient temperatures.
Avoid storing equipment with biodiesel blends in the fuel system for more than three months
or fuel system damage can occur.
If biodiesel is used for seasonal applications, the engine system must be purged before
storage by running the engine on pure diesel fuel for a minimum of 30 minutes.
Care must also be taken when storing biodiesel in bulk storage tanks. All storage and handling
systems must be properly cleaned and maintained. Steps must be taken to minimize moisture
and microbial growth in storage tanks. Consult your fuel supplier for assistance in storing and
B100 biodiesel provides approximately 7% to 10% less energy per gallon of fuel when
compared to conventional diesel fuels. Operation with B20 biodiesel blends can potentially
result in a slight decrease in fuel economy and/or power, depending on the application. To
avoid engine problems when the engine is converted back to 100 percent petrodiesel, do not
change the engine rating to compensate for the potential power loss when operated with
The engines listed in this bulletin are compatible with biodiesel blends up to B20. However,
the following must be taken into account: Natural rubber, butyl rubber, and some types of nitrile rubber (depending on chemical
composition, construction, and application) may be particularly susceptible to degradation.
Also, copper, bronze, brass, tin, lead, and zinc can cause deposit formations. The use of
these materials and coatings should be avoided for vehicle fuel tanks and fuel lines.
Contact your vehicle manufacturer to determine if any of the OEM supplied components are at
risk with biodiesel in order to prevent engine damage.
Low Temperature Performance
Biodiesel fuel properties change at low ambient temperatures, which can pose problems for
both storage and operation. Precautions can be necessary at low ambient temperatures, such
as storing the fuel in a heated building or a heated storage tank, or using cold temperature
The fuel system can require heated fuel lines, filters, and tanks. Filters can plug and fuel in the
tank can solidify at low ambient temperatures if precautions are not taken. A fuel heater is
recommended for ambient temperatures below -5°C [23°F]. Consult your fuel and additive
supplier for assistance in attaining proper cloud point fuel.
Biodiesel fuel is an excellent medium for microbial growth. Microbes cause fuel system
corrosion and premature filter plugging. The effectiveness of all commercially available
conventional anti-microbial additives, when used in biodiesel, is not known. Consult your fuel
and additive supplier for assistance.
It is strongly recommended that customers running biodiesel blends of B5 or below follow the
above precautions as well.
Cummins Inc. approves the use of Cummins Filtration™ Microbicide for use in biodiesel
blends. Product details can be found in the “Additives” section of this Service Bulletin.
Cummins Inc. approves the use of Cummins Filtration™ Asphaltene Conditioner Base for
biodiesel blends. Product details can be found in the “Additives” section of this Service
Cummins Filtration™ Biodiesel Winter Conditioner can be used to improve the pour point and
cold filter plugging point of biodiesel blend, in addition to preventing ice formation in wet fuels
during cold storage. Cummins Filtration™ Biodiesel Winter Conditioner is the only biodiesel
fuel additive approved by Cummins Inc. for winter performance improvements. Contact a
Cummins® Authorized Repair Location for product details.
Table 4: Final Blend Fuel Requirements (at point of delivery)
Item Performance Characteristics Requirements Test Procedure
D1 Blends D2 Blends
1 Flash Point, °C minimum 38 52 ASTM D93
2 Water and sediment volume %, maximum 0.05 0.05 ASTM D2709 or D1796
3 Physical Distillation, T90 °C, maximum 343 343 ASTM D86
4 Kinematic Viscosity, cSt at 40°C 1.3 - 4.1 1.9 - 4.1 ASTM D445
5 Ash, mass %, maximum 0.01 0.01 ASTM D482
6 Sulfur, st %, maximum Per regulation Per regulation ASTM D482 7 Copper strip corrosion rating, maximum Number 3 Number 3 ASTM D130
8 Cetane Number, minimum 43 43 ASTM D613
9 Cloud Point 1 Per foot note Per foot note ASTM D2500
10 Ramsbottom carbon residue on 10% distillation residue, wt%, maximum 0.15 0.35 ASTM
11 Lubricity, HFRR at 60°C, micron, maximum 460 460 ASTM D6079
12 Acid number, mgKOH/g, maximum 0.3 0.3 ASTM D664
13 Phosphorus, wt%, maximum 0.001 0.001 ASTM D4951
14 Total Glycerin - - - - - - N/A
15 Alkali metals (Na+K), ppm, maximum Nd Nd EN14108
16 Alkaline metals (Mg+Ca), ppm maximum Nd Nd EN14108
17 Blend fraction, volume % 2 ±2% ±2% EN14078
18 Thermo - oxidative stability, insolubles, mg/100 mL, maximum 10 10 Modified ASTM
19 Oxidation stability, Induction time, hours, minimum 6 6 EN14112 (Rancimat)
The maximum cloud point temperature shall be equal to or lower than the tenth percentile
minimum ambient temperature in the geographical area and seasonal time frame as defined
by ASTM D975.
Blend fraction refers to the variation in volume percent of B100 in diesel fuel claimed.
Use glass fiber filter.
This section explains the types of fuel filters and their uses.
Cummins® engines are supplied with the latest in fuel filtration technology from Cummins
Filtration™. These systems are designed to remove water and other harmful particles from the
fuel before they damage the fuel pump and other engine components.
Throw Away Canister
The standard fuel filter is the spin-on element. These filters contain a porous, pleated,
chemically treated paper element that will pass fuel freely but trap impurities and sediment.
When the element is serviced, it is simply detached from the fuel filter head assembly,
discarded, and replaced with a new element. The element must be tightened to the
NOTE: Do not pour fuel from an old fuel filter into a new filter in an effort to prime the fuel
system. Use only clean fuel to prime the fuel system. It is not necessary to add fuel to a new
filter if the engine is equipped with an electric fuel transfer pump. Fuel systems on these
engines can be primed by turning the vehicle keyswitch on and off several times to activate
the fuel transfer pump.
Overtightening will distort the filter cartridge or crack the filter head. Do not use a filter element
that has been dented or damaged prior to, or during installation. Replaceable Element Type
Another type of fuel filter used on Cummins® engines has a replaceable pleated paper
element. This type of filter is often recommended or required for use as a first stage of filtration
to provide additional water separation and/or fine particle removal.
Water can enter diesel fuel at various locations along the supply chain, and becomes a
serious issue when present as free water. It contributes to corrosion, biological contamination,
and fuel system malfunctions. Entry points include:
As free water due to ingress as result of heavy rainfall or cracks in equipment
As dissolved (emulsified) water during fuel refining or delivery (this may become free water
further down the supply chain if the fuel is cooled so much that it reaches a saturation point)
As water vapor (moist air) through vents followed by condensation on tank walls, including
Water in diesel fuel is normally present as both free and emulsified water. Free water settles
to the fuel tank bottom, where it can be drained. Emulsified water stays in suspension where it
can enter the fuel lines, fuel pump, and injectors.
Free and emulsified water can be removed from the fuel. Integral fuel filter and water
separators are available that remove both free and emulsified water with varying degrees of
efficiency. The standard fuel filter does remove some free and emulsified water, but with low
efficiency. Due to the above facts and the importance of removing water from fuel for fuel
system integrity, Cummins Inc. has increased the requirements for free water and emulsified
water removal. The fuel-water separator or fuel filter and water separator combination must
remove a minimum of 95 percent of free water (per SAE J1839) and 95 percent of emulsified
water (per SAE J1488). Fuel-water separator filters produced by Cummins Filtration™ and
most other major filter manufacturers meet or exceed these requirements.
Cummins Inc. recommends that a fuel-water separator be installed on all Cummins® engines,
and strongly recommends using Cummins Filtration™ fuel-water separators that utilize
Stratapore™ filter media. These StrataPore™ filters provide high efficiency removal of harmful
particles and both free and emulsified water.
Fuel-water separators should be checked on a daily basis and drained into an appropriate
disposal container when free water is noted. If water is indicated by a water-in-fuel (WIF)
sensor, it should be drained immediately to prevent damage to the fuel system components.
Water should not be allowed to fill the bowl.
NOTE: The drained fluids (mixture of water and fuel) must be properly disposed of according
CAUTION If the water level in the fuel water separator is allowed to reach the fuel filter element, water
can be forced through the filter and cause corrosion and failure of sensitive components in the
Fuel Filter Maintenance
Fuel filters must be changed periodically to prevent restriction of fuel flow from the fuel tank to
the fuel pump. Fuel restriction will increase over time as sediment gets collected in the filter
media. Sediment could possibly consist of rust, dirt, dust, oxidation products, and biological
Change fuel filters as recommended by the appropriate Cummins® Owner's Manual or
Operation and Maintenance Manual. When operating under severe conditions, additional fuel
filter changes can be required. To determine if this is necessary, fuel filter restriction must be
checked. Refer to the appropriate Cummins® Service Manual for fuel filter restriction checking
procedures. After checking the restriction a few times, a maintenance schedule for fuel filter
changes can be established for each type of operation.
This section explains the importance of fuel cleanliness to the successful operation of
Modern fuel systems have been developed to reduce emissions and fuel consumption, and
improve engine performance. These high pressure systems operate at pressures approaching
2100 bar [30,500 psi] and with component match clearances typically from 2 to 5 microns for
injectors. At these pressures, very small, hard particles are potential sources of fuel system
Excessive contamination of diesel fuel can cause premature clogging of diesel fuel filters
and/or premature wear of critical fuel injection system parts. Depending on the size and nature
of the particles, this can lead to:
Reduced component life
Fuel system and/or engine failure
Increased exhaust emissions.
Determining fuel cleanliness requires measuring both the size and number of particles per
size class in the fuel, i.e. the particle size distribution. The International Standards
Organization (ISO) has developed a protocol for expressing the level of contamination by
coding the size distribution called ISO 4406.
ISO 4406 cleanliness codes are expressed as a series of three numbers (#/#/#), which
correspond respectively to the number of particles greater than 4, 6, and 14 microns. For
example, the numbers in the ISO 4406 rating of 18/16/13 translate to:
18 - Up to 2,500 particles larger than 4µm (per mL of fuel)
16 - Up to 640 particles larger than 6µm (per mL of fuel)
13 - Up to 80 particles larger than 14µm (per mL of fuel) Engine builders and fuel injection equipment manufacturers have found that the particles
greater than 4 microns and greater than 6 microns are particularly critical to the durability of
the fuel injection system. They also recognize that the fuel systems must be robust to hard
particles smaller than 4 microns that are difficult to filter out, even with the finest filtration. To
maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of filtration, Cummins Inc. has adopted the
recommendation of the World Wide Fuel Charter that fuel supplied to engines meet the ISO
4406 code of 18/16/13 maximum for respectively 4, 6, and 14 micron particle sizes.
Cummins Inc. recommends that if the fuel does not meet the ISO cleanliness code of 18/16/13
in bulk storage, additional filtration be applied before the fuel is delivered to the equipment's
fuel tank. A Cummins® Distributor or Cummins Filtration™ representative can supply
hardware and additional filtration guidance and can recommend countermeasures such as
improved fuel quality from the fuel supplier, and/or better fuel handling, storage, dispensing,
and fuel tank cleaning techniques.
Tank Vent Filtration
Particles in the 4 to 6 micron size range require laboratory equipment to identify, yet can do
significant damage to high pressure fuel systems when the cleanliness of the fuel in the tank
exceeds the ISO 4406 code 18/16/13 maximum. Cummins Inc. recommends that all fuel tanks
be fitted with a tank vent filter (of at least 98.7 percent efficient at 10 micron) to prevent dirt
from entering the tank as the fuel level drops. One such filter is manufactured by Wiggins and
is available through your Cummins® and Cummins Filtration™ Distributor.
Stand-by and Emergency Power Generation
Engines intended to supply stand-by or emergency power present unique situations for fuel
quality and cleanliness. These engines are not used frequently, and therefore could possibly
require special considerations for fuel handling and storage.
The engine manual discusses the specific procedures for maintaining the engine in a state of
readiness. This section is concerned with the fuel supply.
Fuel tanks must be inspected and maintained to avoid contamination of the fuel by either
water or dirt. Consult with your fuel supplier for qualified persons or laboratories in your area
to help with monitoring of the fuel supply. Samples can be taken from the top, middle, and
bottom of the tank every 6 months and checked for cleanliness and biological contamination,
as well as to make sure the fuel still meets the specifications in Table 1 of this service bulletin.
Long term storage (in excess of 6 months) is not recommend
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